Contribution of Muslim Writers to Punjabi Literature in Jammu and Kashmir
posted on Sep 03, 2022 | Author DR. JASBIR SINGH SARNA
Jammu and Kashmir is the embodiment of Punjabi civilization and not the name of a mountainous region surrounded by fixed borders. It is the misfortune of the Punjabis that this place has been geographically isolated for political reasons. Jhelum, Chenab and Ravi rivers, one of the five main symbols of the Punjabi civilization, embrace the fixed borders and sing the Punjabi tune in the mural region. Punjabi language is one of the vital languages of UT and is well recognized in J&K legislation. There are several dialects spoken around these rivers like Dogri, Pahari, Gojari, Poonchi, Chubali , pothwari, etc. but the truth is that these spoken dialects grew up drinking Punjabi mother’s milk. It is a clear fact that it is a collection of various manifestations of Punjabi culture. Punjabi is the common heritage of Muslims, Sikhs, Hindus, Christians, Buddhists, etc. Among thousands of languages, Punjabi ranks fifth after English, Chinese, Urdu and Dutch. According to Mohan Singh Deewana from 14th to 15th century, we have Old Punjabi in which Lahndi predominates.
Punjabi language and literature are vital and stronger, in terms of thoughts. Language, in individualization, is a matter of phonetics, and the phonetics of race, climate and diet. In our UT, the spoken Punjabi dialects intertwine with each other with close affinity. These dynamic waves are full of essence in different sub-dialects of the Punjabi language. Over time, conscious and subconscious ideas have flourished among the tribes and races of the world. Drew Fredrick simplified this correlation with an appropriate model. The Punjabi language and literature have enhanced the historical cultural aspects of our UT and in this way invaluable assets of our rich glory and heritage are crafted into our soil. It is a true fact that Jammu and Kashmir has linguistic, social, cultural, literary, political, historical, economic, religious relations with the State of Punjab and communication ties only through this language. The uniqueness of Punjabi literature is that it belongs to every citizen irrespective of caste, creed and religion. There is no script rigidity, it is easily written in Gurmukhi, Persian, Devnagri as per need, knowledge or suitability.
I am pleased to introduce some Punjabi Muslim writers from our Jammu and Kashmir, who have enriched Punjabi literature to its core.
Aziz Khan Karnahi
This Punjabi poet was born in Karnah (Thithwal, Kashmir) in 1896 AD. Due to economic constraints, he was unable to publish his works. He was one of the pioneers of the Punjabi literary society. Among his works, the poem “The Wisdom of God” became very popular. This poet died in Karnah in 1981 AD.
Abdullah Larvi was born in Sanjora Balakot (Hazara) in 1863 in the house of Mian Fullful. It is mentioned in Tawarikh that he had four marriages. He stayed in Wangat (Kashmir) and preached Islam and continued to write Siharfis under the guise of a fakir. Published Majmu’a Siharfi in Punjabi. Some of these books were also written in Urdu. He died in 1926 AD in Wangat, popularly known as ‘Wangat Nagri’.
Iqbal Azeem Chowdhary
Mian Mohammad Iqbal, pen name Iqbal Azeem Chowdhary, pedagogue, writer, poet, author and critic, born in Pahalnar Wangath Kangan Kashmir in April 1940. Mian Mohammad Akbar Bajran belongs to the Bakarwal tribe of the Gujjar community. Resides in Udder (Baba Nagri) Tehsil Kangan Ganderbal. Iqbal Azeem Chowdhary is a famous writer, poet and author of Gojri, Punjabi and Urdu languages. He is the author of a number of books in Urdu Punjabi and Gojri and has edited a number of titles and periodicals in different languages, published by the Academy of Arts, Culture and Languages of Jammu- and Kashmir. Received previous education at Government Mobile School lamberi Nowshera then joined Kangan High School and later joined Oriental College Srinagar for Higher Education and completed Honors in Urdu and Persian with Honors from University of Kashmir. Started working as the first broadcaster of Gojri at Radio Kashmir Srinagar in 1969. He worked as an editor and cultural officer of the Gojri section at the Academy of Arts, Culture and Languages of Jammu and Kashmir and retired from this service in 2000. His published works are “REEJH KAWALLIEN”, “DHARTI KA ZAKHM”, “PAYAAB” and Punjabi Publications: “KULLI NI FAQEER DI WICHOON”. He died on December 15, 2021.
Syed Hussian Shah Bukhari
Bukhari was born approximately between 1906 and 1911 AD. This Sufi poet was born in Poonch. His remarkable poems were accompanied by his nature and used a common colloquial language.
Sarfraz Hussain Khan Tasin
This Punjabi poet was born on January 2, 1908 in Manganad, Poonch. His nickname was Tasin Zafri. He got education till matric and Adib Fazal. He was a teacher at Poonch until 1947, then went to Pakistan. Later he joined Rawalpindi Radio Station and he continued to publish Rawalpindi’s weekly “Kashmir”. He wrote in Urdu and Punjabi, but he composed poems in Punjabi. He died on June 26, 1955 in Lahore.
Sarwar Hasan was born in the village of Rajouri (Kashmir) Dhankot in the house of Maulana Mehridin Qamar Awanan in 1942 AD. After completing basic education, he became a teacher in the education department. In 1965, Sarwar went into exile in Abbottabad (Pakistan). In 1980, he returned to his native Rajouri. Wrote a lot of poetry in Punjabi, which could not be published in book form. Newspapers and magazines continued to be adorned. This poet died on August 25, 2000 in Rajouri.
Salim Kasher was born to Muhdeen and Mehtab Begum on October 8, 1932 in Anantnag (Kashmir). He was Chief Cashier at Pakistan National Bank for many years. Retired from National Bank of Pakistan, Lahore. His books published in Punjabi are: Tatian Chhawan (1963), Surghi Da Tara (1978), Hawa Di Suli (1982). These books have also received awards from various organizations.
Doctor Sabar Afaqi
Dr. Saber Afaqi was born in the house of Maulana Ali Muhammad Fakhra in 1933 in Gohari village, Muzaffarabad (Kashmir). His real name is Chaudhry Ahmed Din Famra. After primary education in Persian and Arabic, he became an Arabic teacher in the Department of Education in 1952. Completed FA (1952), BA (1960), MA (Urdu, Persian) in 1965 so that he was on duty. He became a lecturer at Muzaffarabad in 1967. He went to Iran to do his doctorate in Persian, where he obtained his doctorate in Persian translation from Rajatarangani in 1972. He continued to serve as an associate professor at Muzaffarabad College. He also wrote Athru (1966), Hara (1967), Phulkheli (1976) and published three volumes in the Punjabi language.
Hazur Shah, Pir
Pir Hazur Shah was born in 1833 AD in the village of Gulpur (Poonch). He was the recognized elders of the region. Much of his poetry was destroyed in the 1947 holocaust. This poet died in Chhatra (Poonch) in 1980.
Habibullah Shah Bukhari, Syed
Habibullah Shah was born in the Pakhli (Kashmir) region of Kaghan. He was a good Punjabi poet and a scholar of Arabic and Persian. Spiritual color and Sufi ideology are evident in the poems. His manuscript book ‘Miraj Alxas’ is present in the village of Pamrot. Arabic-Persian words also appeared in the poems. He died in 1923 AD.
Khalid Hussain was born to his mother Batul Begum on April 1, 1945 in Udhampur (Jammu). He retired from the position of Deputy Commissioner after serving in various positions. He is basically a good short story writer and is associated with many literary societies. He was several times President of Jammu Kashmir Punjabi Sahit Sabha, Srinagar and organized the All India Punjabi Conference. As a journalist, he remained editor of Sandesh, Amarad, Waqt, Zimmidaar, Hamdard, Political Times, Kanwash, etc. His published books include The Jhelum Vagada Raha (1976), Gauri Fasal De Saudagar (1980), Deep Paniyan Da Suhar (1988), Noori Rishma etc. Apart from these, he has received many awards. Recently, he received the Sahitya Academy Award for his Punjabi book Sullian da Sallan.
Khuda Bakhsh was born in Mahut (Poonch) village in 1888 in Halim Dahar. Having experienced hardships as a child, he gained a modest education and began to do domestic work. The poem begins with the stumble of Ishq. It was natural for him to mature in poetry enjoying the company of the court of Baba saheb and gaining guidance from Kader Bakhsh. Much of his speech is present through the Punjabi ‘Shi-harfi’ and ‘baramanh’. The entire Kalam of Punjabi is still unprinted. Some Shi-herfies were included by Mian Bashir Ahmad Larvi in his book Nir-Samundar. Khuda Bakhsh died in the village of Mahut in 1982.
Ghulam Hyder Gulzar
This Punjabi poet was born in 1904 AD in Mandi Poonch. He continued to serve as Maulvi after acquiring Muktab’s training. He wrote many poems in Punjabi. He died at the age of 49.
Ghulam Nabi Rasleen
This poet was born in the first quarter of the 18th century. This poet was a resident of Bilgram, Srinagar (Kashmir). He wrote a poetic treatise which has 1154 couplets and finished this treatise in 1154 Hijri. The language of this poetic text revolves around a simple language. The name of this poetic treatise is “Rasa Pravandha”.
(TO BE CONTINUED)
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